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Various methods exist differing in accuracy, cost and applicable time scale.All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements, each with its own atomic number, indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus.
The processes that form specific materials are often conveniently selective as to what elements they incorporate during their formation.
After one half-life has elapsed, one half of the atoms of the substance in question will have decayed.
Many radioactive substances decay from one nuclide into a final, stable decay product (or "daughter") through a series of steps known as a decay chain.
Mass spectrometers are liable to interferences and inaccuracies.
Primary amongst these is the quality of the vacuum.